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"A warrior is always aware of what is worth fighting for. He does not go into combat over things that do not concern him, and he never wastes his time over provocations."
Napoleon and Europe
Napoleon had been made a general in 1793 at the age of twenty-four. Two years later, he made a name for himself by putting down a royalist uprising in Paris.
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in England but spread quickly to the rest of the world. Although the most important early inventions occurred in England, others followed elsewhere: In the United States, there was Robert Fulton’s steamship and Cyrus McCormick’s reaper, which revolutionized the harvesting of wheat, as well as the development of chemical fertilizers by Justus von Liebig and other German chemists.
1848: The Peoples’ Spring
The year 1848 in Europe is sometimes called the Peoples’ Spring because, in the course of a few months, popular revolts and revolutions occurred all over Europe. These began in France but affected virtually every country except England and Russia. Monarchies were overthrown, constitutions proclaimed, or national independence declared in France, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere.