(9) History of Europe


The French Revolution



The Radical Republic and the Terror


 The fall of the monarchy marked the triumph of popular democracy and a return to universal manhood suffrage (introduced in 1789 but abandoned in 1791).


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(10) History of the Europe



"A warrior is always aware of what is worth fighting for. He does not go into combat over things that do not concern him, and he never wastes his time  over provocations."


Paulo Coelho



Napoleon's Rise to Power


Napoleon and Europe


Napoleon had been made a general in 1793 at the age of twenty-four. Two years later, he made a name for himself by putting down a royalist uprising in Paris.


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(11) History of Europe


 Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution and the Birth of Capitalism

The Industrial Revolution refers to the era in which economic production shifted from the use of hand tools to the use of power machinery, fueled primarily by coal and steam.


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(12) History of Europe


Locksley Hall (First Part) by Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Locksley Hall (Second Part) by Alfred, Lord Tennyson


The Impact of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began in England but spread quickly to the rest of the world. Although the most important early inventions occurred in England, others followed elsewhere: In the United States, there was Robert Fulton’s steamship and Cyrus McCormick’s reaper, which revolutionized the harvesting of wheat, as well as the development of chemical fertilizers by Justus von Liebig and other German chemists.


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(13) History of Europe

Why no Revolution in 1848 in Britain

1848 oktober revolution

1848: The Peoples’ Spring


The year 1848 in Europe is sometimes called the Peoples’ Spring because, in the course of a few months, popular revolts and revolutions occurred all over Europe. These began in France but affected virtually every country except England and Russia. Monarchies were overthrown, constitutions proclaimed, or national independence declared in France, Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Germany, Italy, and elsewhere.


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