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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Post-Stalin
After the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the General Assembly of the United Nations called on its member states to promote dissemination and explanation of the Declaration ‘chiefl y in schools and other educational institutions.’ I do not know how carefully this Declaration is studied in Soviet schools, or if its studied at all - I know that the contents of the Declaration are generally familiar to people acquainted with samizdat publications.
European Union Brief Terminology
Accession: The process of joining the European Union. After accession treaties have been negotiated, all member states must ratify them and the European Parliament must give its assent.
Asia, Latin America, and generalized preferences
Britain, on joining the Community, managed to secure satisfactory terms for Commonwealth countries from Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific. But no special arrangement was agreed for the Asian members of the Commonwealth-India, Pakistan (which then included Bangladesh), Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Singapore-most of whose exports had entered Britain tariff-free under Commonwealth preference. The damage was limited, however, because in 1971 the Community was among the first to adopt a Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), according preferential entry to imports from almost all Third World countries that did not already benefit from the Lome Convention or the Mediterranean agreements; and this reduced the discrimination against most Asian and Latin American countries. The system was less favourable than it may sound because for ‘sensitive’ (that is, the more competitive) products there were quotas limiting the preferences to quantities fixed in advance for each product and each member state. But the generalized preferences nevertheless helped to strengthen links with less-developed countries.
The EU and the rest of Europe
A most impressive aspect of the European Union project has been its ability to develop and expand from a small group of relatively similar states in Western Europe into a European Union of much greater width and depth. Within this long process of enlargement, it is the expansion into Central and Eastern Europe that has, apart from de Gaulle’s reaction to the British application, been the most contentious. While member states generally agreed that Eastern enlargement was to be welcomed, to extend the area of prosperity and security, there have also been greatly varying degrees of enthusiasm, to the point where discussion of ‘enlargement fatigue’ became not uncommon in the old member states. Certainly, there have been problems on the way, but enlargement can be seen as an essential part of the EU and its continued development, not least in its dealings with those who remain outside; and the treaty still affirms that membership is open to any European state that respects ‘the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law’.